a guy who needs to remove low back pain with stretching

Did you know most pain can be eliminated with stretching?

Rob walked into the 24 Hour Fitness at the UC Irvine location asking for help. He was in obvious pain. He worked as a programmer at Blizzard. His goals where to get ripped, put on muscle, you know the typical male request. I analyzed his body and asked him one question, “When was the last time you stretched?”

“Stretch? I’m here to get chiseled for the ladies,” he smiled.

“Do you suffer from chronic headaches, crippling low back pain, or shoulder issues?”

His smile vanished. “Yes, yes and yes. How’d you know?”

“Well, you kinda look like a turtle.”

turtlehead posture causes pain and can be eliminated with stretching

Rob straightened up. “I’m a programmer, everyone looks like this at work. That’s just how it is.”

“No, it’s not. Let me explain. A person with perfect posture looks like a skeleton. But when we attach muscles, the problems begin to happen. If the muscles are in the right position like the skeleton, life’s dandy. Right position equals the right length, equals no pain.”

Rob straightened up like a pencil.

Click for FREE Guide

Poor Posture Forms Knots in Muscle Tissue

I jotted my head forward. “But when the body’s in a fixed position like sitting, the bones stay in a shortened position for a long time. Unfortunately, this position causes knots to form in the muscles. These knots in the muscles pull the bones into a shortened position. Those shoulders are forward, rounded, and closer to my chest. This position causes knots in the chest muscles. The knots cause the muscle to be shortened and the shortened muscle pulls the bones closer. The closer bones change the body and causes joint pain. Therefore, the pain you experience comes from your poor posture.”

an illustration of bones being pulled together from lack of stretching

Rob started slouching again, his body returned to the classic turtlehead position.

“The human head weighs 8-10 pounds,” I told Rob. “Every inch your head moves forward, an extra 10 pounds of weight is added. Your head can add up to 60 pounds of pressure.”

Rob straightened up again to his full 6-2′ height.

“You’re in your early thirties and you look like a turtle. Not a good look. But, it’s not just looking like ET that’s troubling. The shortness in the muscles causes chronic pain. Neck pain is the third most common type of pain for Americans. In addition, neck pain can be either acute (lasting less than three months.) Or the pain can be chronic (lasting longer than three months.) And it’s not just men, women are three times more likely to have this issue.”

Turtlehead Issues

  1. headaches
  2. arthritis
  3. degenerative joints
  4. lowers breathing and lung capacity
  5. hurts mood

“Can I fix my head to get rid of the pain?”

“Luckily, there’s a simple solution for neck pain.” Rob followed me to the stretching area.

Neck Pain Stretching Instructions

  • hold each neck stretch for a minimum of 25 seconds (30 seconds ideal)
  • do all stretches on both sides
  • perform at least 3 times per day

Most neck pain can be alleviated and eliminated with corrective stretching. But, the neck stretches need to be performed at least 3 times per day and held for 25 seconds. These stretches need to be part of your daily routine. They can be performed anywhere. You can do them while sitting at work, waiting for the elevator, waiting for a red light, any waiting.  Add these stretches into your daily routine and say bye-bye to your turtlehead.

Rob nodded. “What about my low back? It’s killing me.”

Low Back Pain Can be Caused By Poor Posture

  • Back pain is the leading cause of disability worldwide.
  • 80% of people experience back pain in their lives.
  • Half of all Americans experienced back pain last year.
  • Tight hip flexors, a tight low back, and tight hamstrings can all cause pain in the back.

“You can also get rid of back pain with stretching?” I told Rob.

He looked at me like I was nuts.

How To Eliminate Pain with Stretching

Click for FREE Guide
“Stretching prevents and reverses the damage from our work environments. Therefore, a solid stretching routine helps you eliminate pain. Trust me, you want to get rid of pain. Pain directly impairs your ability to make good decisions. When you don’t feel good, bad things happen. Not only, will you remove the pain, but your posture will improve. Perfect posture makes you look taller, fitter and skinnier. Stretching keeps you looking young.”

When you don’t feel good, bad things happen.

I then walked Rob through a corrective stretching routine. Here’s the routine:

How to Stretch to Remove Pain

stretching can eliminate pain

 

Stretching involves holding the muscle past its happy point for twenty-five seconds. Happy point is the last point where there’s no pain. Trust me, you’ll know when you’re past the happy point.

Once you reach the happy point, hold constant tension in the position. Take deep breadths and hold the stretch with the proper posture for at least 25 seconds. You can hold the stretch longer, but 25 is the minimum time to make a change.

When to Stretch

Stretching before your workout gets your body ready for movement. This reduces injuries by loosening the tight muscles in your body. Stretching afterward also helps. The increased muscle temperature from the workout increases your flexibility. This means you can stretch farther after your workout. You can also stretch anytime you’re waiting. Maximize your time by stretching anytime it’s possible. You don’t need equipment to stretch. You only need discipline. Discipline is one of the MAD Plan’s pillar’s for making a fitness permanent in your life.

The number and timing of your stretches matters. Muscles respond to length and time. Your body must be held in this position for the change to happen. Be consistent daily, and watch the magic happen. The key to making the pain disappear is consistency. 

The Stretches

Here are the pain relieving stretches. Pick the area you feel needs help first. Start with those corresponding stretches. You can also perform all the stretches daily. Doing all the stretches everyday will help your body the most. It’s a simple, but powerful practice.

Click here for your FREE Stretch Guide.

 

How Long to Remove Pain

Rob wanted to know what everyone wants to know. I told him it can take three to four weeks to see some results, but you’ll see a huge difference in 6 months. Be patient, be consistent and your body will change. You will feel better, and you won’t look like a turtle anymore.

“Will I be ripped?”

This helps, by giving you the right mechanics for your workout. We’ll need to focus on your diet to be ripped. But today, let’s just get rid of your chronic pain, okay?”

He smiled and said, “Okay.”

 

Conclusion

If you suffer from low back pain, neck pain, headaches or knee pain, you can solve a lot of those problems with consistent stretching. I hope you find this information helpful. If you have a friend or family member who suffers from pain, please share these stretches with them. Pain sucks and we can eliminate it with simple, consistent, and correct practices.

 

Tony Arreola

NASM Master Trainer

Best Selling Author, Get Me Skinny

 

PS: Don’t forget your FREE Stretch Guide.

 

References:

  1. Alvarez, D. J., & Rockwell, P. G. (2002, February 15). Trigger points: Diagnosis and management. American Family Physician65(4), 653–661. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0215/p653.html
  2. Bron, C., & Dommerholt, J. D. (2012, October). Etiology of myofascial trigger points. Current Pain and Headache Reports16(5), 439–444. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3440564/
  3. Coleman, C. (2017, April 18). Triggers points and physical therapy: Striking a nerve in a polarized profession. Retrieved from https://newgradphysicaltherapy.com/trigger-points-physical-therapy-striking/
  4. Knot in your neck? 4 ways to relieve trigger point pain. (2014, May 22). Retrieved from https://health.clevelandclinic.org/knot-in-your-neck-4-ways-to-relieve-trigger-point-pain/
  5. Myofascial trigger point therapy — what is it? (n.d.). Retrieved from https://namtpt.wildapricot.org/MTPT_What_is_it
  6. Shah, J. P., Thaker, N., Heimur, J., Aredo, J. V., Sikdar, S., & Gerber, L. H. (2016, July 1). Myofascial trigger points then and now: A historical and scientific perspective. PM&R7(7), 746–761. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4508225/
  7.  Clark, M.A., Lucett, S. C., & Sutton, B. G. (2012). NASM Essentionals of Personal Fitness Training (4th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.
  8. Jensen M, Brant-Zawadzki M, Obuchowski N, et al. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lumbar Spine in People Without Back Pain. N Engl J Med 1994; 331: 69-116.
  9. Hoy D, March L, Brooks P, et al The global burden of low back pain: estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases Published Online First: 24 March 2014. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-204428
  10. Vallfors B. Acute, Subacute and Chronic Low Back Pain: Clinical Symptoms, Absenteeism and Working Environment. Scan J Rehab Med Suppl 1985; 11: 1-98.
  11. The Hidden Impact of Musculoskeletal Disorders on Americans, United State Bone and Joint Initiative, 2018.
  12. Rubin Dl. Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Spine Pain. Neurol Clin. 2007; May;25(2):353-71.
  13. Sauver, JL et al. Why patients visit their doctors: Assessing the most prevalent conditions in a defined American population. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Volume 88, Issue 1, 56–67. 
an image of a guy searching for a flat tummy

It was Christmas 2002, I turned on the bathroom lights in the middle of the night only to be startled by the image in the mirror. Yikes, what happened? This must be the exact opposite of a flat tummy. Is my belly folding over my waistband?

Tony Arreola's before picture without a flat tummy

It looks like I’m pregnant, not a good look for a 23-year-old single male. Six-pack abs would be great, but I just want to look less awful. Is less awful a look? I don’t think that’s too much to ask.

“I just want to look less awful.”

But, here’s the big lie. Exercises alone will never achieve a flat stomach. Never. Trust me, I’ve tried. I once did 1,000 sit-ups for 7 days because my friend (who was equally chubby) told me Bruce Lee swore by this method. Without question I tried feverishly. My stomach ached for weeks, but sadly, I remained chubby.

Fail.

Not until I became a certified personal trainer with years of experience, I finally discovered how to get a ripped stomach. Like me, you’ve probably tried gimmicks, shortcuts, teas, waist trimmers, pills and everything else in the market. I’m here to help you clear away the nonsense.

For a flat tummy you need to understand a few basics:

The Role of the Stomach
Food Matters (A Lot…)
Fat and Energy
The Different Types of Fat
What’s Bodyfat?
Dropping Bodyfat to Flatten the Belly
Ab Exercises Help Your Core but Flatten Nothing
How to Finally Get a Flat Tummy

The Role of the Stomach

an illustration of a tummy with food inside

The first principle to understand is your stomach. An organ aiding with digestion, it works like a muscle, expanding and contracting to process foods we eat. You can feel when your stomach has too much in it, needing to loosen your pants. You can also feel when you’re hungry and don’t have enough  in your belly.

Although your stomach expands and contracts, the range of the movement is temporary. The movement’s range is small, we’re talking inches. Your stomach isn’t the issue, one single meal isn’t going to help much.

Food Matters (A Lot…)

Trainer Tony Arreola the caveman

The next area to investigate is what you’re eating. What happens when you eat more food than your body needs? But it’s actually not food that matter, is the calories from the chosen food.  First and foremost, you need to understand calories. Calories represent the energy required to keep us alive. Think of it as precious fuel for our body. Back in our hunting days, meals were far and few in between. Humans crave calories, crave food, our human survival system.

 

The real problem arises when we eat more calories than our body needs. After the food goes through the stomach, it enters the digestive area, where valuables like proteins, fats, carbs, vitamins, and water aid the body. The digestive system will strip all the valuables from our foods. Proteins are the building blocks for your body, carbohydrates are instant energy and fats are stored as a long-time source of energy. But anything your body doesn’t use will be converted and stored as fat in your body.

What?

Fat and Energy

Imagine you’re getting at a campfire. You’re responsible for the fire to burn the entire night. You gather wood, but don’t know exactly how much wood you’ll need for the entire night. You don’t want everyone to be cold, so you make sure to grab enough wood. Your fire starts, the energy starts burning. Throughout the night, you throw more logs into the fire. After the night, all extra logs remain as extra unused energy. All that extra wood is simply extra energy that hasn’t been used. The extra energy is fat on your body. I guess, back in 2002 I was a giant ball of energy.

Visceral Fat and Subcutaneous Fat

Any valuable food your body eats but can’t immediately use will be stored as fat. They mostly accumulate in two places, subcutaneous fat and visceral fat. Subcutaneous fat is found under your skin, while visceral fat collects within the abdomen in the spaces around organs.

Visceral Fat

The visceral fat is the dark, yucky fat surrounding your abs. This is where that blasted fat tummy first appears. Unhealthy visceral fat needs to be removed. But because of its location, it’s hard to measure our visceral fat. Luckily, subcutaneous fat’s location helps us get a measurement… (“Whohooo, lucky us” said no one ever.)

What’s Bodyfat?

Go ahead and pinch your skin. The stuff under your skin that isn’t muscle is fat. Anything you can grab but can’t move is subcutaneous fat. This is your bodyfat, as trainers we measure bodyfat with calipers. We take a one-inch pinch on four sites on your body, add up the numbers, crosscheck with a bodyfat table to get your bodyfat percentage. Some scales can also check your bodyfat with impedance. Your numbers will vary, but the lower the bodyfat, the less fat you have, the less visceral fat and (drum-roll please…)

The lower the bodyfat, the flatter the stomach

Dropping Bodyfat Flattens the Tummy

Here it is! Your recipe to a flatter tummy. To flatten the stomach, all you need to drop your bodyfat. That’s it. You can perform crunches, sit-ups and planks all day long. But if your bodyfat doesn’t drop low enough, you’ll never reap the benefits of your hard work. Your rock-hard abs will be covered in a marshmallow layer of fat. Which means no flat tummy ☹

Ab Exercises Strengthen Your Core, but Flatten Nothing

You can perform dozens of exercises for your tummy. This will make you feel better, but you’ll look the same. At least the ab work strengthens your core. Your core is vital for everyday life. Unfortunately, no matter how cool the ab exercise is…it will do NOTHING to make your tummy look flatter. Sad, but true.

How To Finally Get a Flat Tummy

Focus on your caloric intake, eating less calories than your body burns. The best exercise is the one where you go to the grocery store, buy and eat the right foods. Perform total body exercises focusing on the major muscle groups, while keeping the core (abs) engaged. Focus on the energy intake and energy expenditure.

Personal Trainer Tony Arreola showing a flat tummy

No matter what anyone tells you, the best and only way to flatten your stomach is by focusing on your energy balance. How many calories you’re eating versus how many calories you’re burning. By dropping bodyfat you WILL get your tummy flatter. The days of being scared to turn on the bathroom lights are finally over for me. But I want to share the same success with you.

 

I know the truth can be hard to hear. I went through this process myself. I’m an engineer, so I’m always looking for the fastest, simplest way. Unfortunately for your flat tummy, this won’t work. I fell for the Bruce Lee 1,000 daily sit-ups. My stomach and pride were hurt. What kind of silly things have you done to get that coveted waistline? Please share with me in the comments.

Tony Arreola
NASM Master Trainer
Author, Get Me Skinny

PS: Have you downloaded your FREE Guide to a Flat Tummy yet?

 

References:

1. Clark, M.A., Lucett, S. C., & Sutton, B. G. (2012). NASM Essentionals of Personal Fitness Training (4th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.

2. Your digestive system and how it works. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/yrdd. Retrieved 9/21/2019

3. Mason JB. Mechanisms of nutrient absorption and malabsorption. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Retrieved 9/21/2019

4. Johnson LR, et al. Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2012. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Retrieved 9/21/2019

5. Hall JE. Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2011. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Retrieved 9/21/2019

6. What I need to know about bowel control. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/bowelcontrol_ez/index.aspx.

7. Marcia Wade. Web MD “The Risks of Belly Fat — and How to Beat Them” Retrieved 9/21/2019 from https://www.webmd.com/diet/obesity/features/the-risks-of-belly-fat#1

a photo of a full body exercise

“What’s really the best full body workout?”still chubby personal trainer Tony Arreola

I asked my buddy David at the gym. It was 2003, we’d been working out for a few weeks without seeing any results. I was growing impatient. Does David even know what he’s doing? I desperately needed to drop the fat. But everyone had different answers, different full body workouts, different everything. How can everyone have different opinions? I needed a simple way to finally get the results I dreamed about. Does anyone know the answer? Imagine my anger when I discovered the truth about the fitness lies…

That’s when my fitness journey began.

Three years earlier in 2000, I set foot inside my first official gym. The place was intimidating. Everyone moved with purpose. I felt nervous, anxious, like I didn’t belong. The junior high school dance all over again.

A confused man looking for the best full body workout

I was lost.

So I did what any other rational human being would do. I copied the ones that looked like they knew what they were doing. (Bad Idea #1)

I worked out for over 2 hours that ill-fated day. (Bad Idea #2) Moving mindlessly from equipment to equipment, trying to read the instructions without looking like I’m reading the instructions.

The next day everything hurt. Obviously, good, right? No pain, no gain. Except it meant no more workouts. I would go for a couple days, and then miss weeks, sometimes months.

Listening to my friend’s advice didn’t get me any worthwhile results.

Magazines (Bad Idea #3)

Welp, that didn’t last. Every month, a “new latest and greatest workout” would be released. But after a few months, the exercises looked oddly similar. Burned again.

After two years of listening to nonsense and countless bad ideas (I stopped counting after ten.) I decided to become a certified personal trainer. Surely, I would find the answers here.

And I did.

Jeff Kryel (one of my fitness heroes) helped me learn the basics of fundamental movement. Exercise involves movement. But, exercise only benefits you if performed properly. Here’s the most valuable information from my first personal training certification.

24 Hour Fitness Logo

 

Everything You Need to Know About Full Body Exercise

“Why do we need to work out the muscles anyways?” I asked in personal training class.

Muscles are the focal point of resistance training, weight training, and core training. These are all names for the same process. Resistance training provides external resistance to the muscle being used. The ‘resistance’ is the external force added to the movement. Anything can provide external resistance: machines,barbells, dumbbells, and your own body. The added external resistance stimulates the muscle tissue. It breaks down (tears) the muscle tissue for repair.” Jeff replied.

Oh, that makes way more sense. That’s where all the different names come from.

“We tear down the muscle to rebuild it? How does this benefit us?”

“Resistance training tears down the muscle tissue, by overloading the muscle with added resistance (weights, bodyweight, etc.) These microtears cause some soreness. The microtears go through a repair cycle. This is when and where muscle growth occurs. The body adapts to the new demand on the muscles.”

“Do we want muscle microtears?”

“The breakdown and repair cycle make our muscles, bones, joints and minds stronger. The inflammation triggers cell regeneration, keeping you young, fit and healthy. Resistance training forces your body to recover.”

When we don’t weight train, our muscles and bones become weak. Weight training breaks down muscle tissue, forcing it to rebuild. Once rebuilt, your muscles will be a little stronger. As we continue working, eventually your body becomes stronger.

“What’s the best full body workout?” I asked.

“That depends.”

Not the answer I was looking for.

Full Body Movement (Motor Patterns)personal trainer Tony Arreola performing a full body exercise

“First, you need to understand motor patterns or mechanics. These are a fancy way of saying how your body moves. If you do a chest press, do you feel it in your chest? Most beginners don’t know how to “feel” an exercise in a certain spot. They remember the slogan, ‘no pain, no gain.’ Which is wrong. You need to feel the right muscle turning on at the right time (mechanics.) The correct muscles need to fire with a controlled movement.”

You lost me, Jeff.

Turning Off the Wrong Muscles

“Only the intended muscles need to work. Muscles like your neck, shoulders etc. need to be off. When performing exercise correctly, ONLY the intended muscle and your core activate. The rest of your muscles remain idle. Correct mechanics are difficult to develop by yourself. The ‘feel’ of the exercise is specific.”

“What do you mean by ‘feel?’”

“For example, when I perform a back row, I feel it only in my back. The intended muscle and a little in my arms (primary, secondary mover.) My neck and shoulders aren’t engaged. Most beginners feel this exercise in their arms, shoulders and neck. They don’t feel anything in their back, nothing.”

“What if I don’t FEEL it, where I NEED it?”

“This is common and means the primary mover, one of the biggest calorie burning pieces of machinery isn’t working. The muscle we’re targeting isn’t turning on. Yeah, that’s a major problem. The right mechanics can be developed by understanding what muscles need to be turned on and what muscles need to be turned off.”

“How do I tell my muscles to move?”

“Muscles only move by responding to a signal from the brain (neural activation.) The brain sends a message to the muscle telling it to activate or to relax. Muscles can only squeeze or relax. Muscles attach to bones, by squeezing the muscle it pulls/pushes/rotates the bones creating movement.”

“Why am I supposed to care?”

“If you work out your back, but can’t feel your back working, then you’re NOT working out.”

Rats.

Perform the Exercise (Form)

“Whether you’re standing, sitting, or laying, you need to be in proper alignment. During our workout, we need our posture to be in a good soldier-like position.

Proper Posture: head back, chin tucked in, ear over the shoulder, tail bone tucked in, back perfectly flat

Having good posture is the first step in having good mechanics. It will also help avoid potential injuries.”

 

How Many Times Should I Do the Exercise (Repetitions)?

Jeff gave me the standard answer. And after years of field practice, I disagree. I don’t believe in a set number of repetitions. I’ve never used a number, but I have found a range to be most effective. Muscles respond to force and time of exertion. There is no exact number, so a range works best. For muscle growth, you need to be in the lower range (heavy weight.) (8-12) 3-4 sets. For most people, 3 sets in the range of (8-12) works. Beginners need to stay in the (12-15) range.

Why, and who is a beginner?

If you think you’re a beginner, then for sure you’re a beginner. Beginners don’t have full control over exercise movements. Ex: if you’re doing a dumbbell press and the dumbbells are shaky (quite common) then you’re a beginner. Don’t worry about being a beginner. No matter what anyone says we all started as beginners.
When I first learned these topics, I gladly tried them all. But a lot of what I was taught didn’t apply in the “real world.”

Here’s another example where the textbooks can lead you down the wrong path.

 

How Fast Should I Go?

You’re talking about tempo, which is hard to apply. Much too complicated for such little rewards. Speed only requires common sense. To maximize resistance, we need to minimize momentum. The movement needs to be a smooth, clean, and consistent movement with no jerking. It should continue smoothly throughout the repetition and the set. This should be your tempo for most of your exercises. Tempo only changes during an isometric movement (static or no movement) like a plank. Or while performing explosive movements. Great for advanced athletes. But most of us can stay in the slow, controlled tempo. Trust me, one less thing to worry about.

What the books fail to mention can hurt you. I’m talking about momentum.

 

Stop Using Momentum

When you swing the weight, it’s called momentum. It’s a way to cheat. Not only are you cheating yourself, but you’re risking injury. Common uses of momentum in the gym are performed by guys during arm curls, they’ll swing their backs to swing a heavier weight. Measuring their strength by the number on the dumbbell. But muscles don’t recognize numbers.

Muscles only respond to resistance. To maximize resistance, stop swinging or jerking the weights.

Momentum is hurting not helping you.

Anyways, back to my personal training class.

 

Proper Breathing

“When Should I Breathe?” Another trainer in class asked.

“Always. When you perform an exercise, constant air flow maximizes results.

For maximum results. Don’t hold your breath.

Most exercises move in opposite ways (in and out or up and down.) Whether you breathe in during the up phase or during the down phase doesn’t really matter. What matters is that you’re breathing. Make sure the breathing is constant,” Jeff answered.

Slowly the fitness lights turned on.

I was proud of my week long personal training certification, I understood how and why we move. My training class taught me good form and a proper foundation. But I needed more, much more.

It was 2002, I was a rookie personal trainer at 24 Hour Fitness at UC Irvine, AND I knew it all… (Don’t we all at 23 years old?)chubby personal trainer Tony Arreola

I started working out with trainers, but I noticed a problem. The trainers picked they’re own workouts based on what they liked to do. Not what the client needs or wants

Common Personal Trainer Example:

If Sarah like to do butt exercises, then guess what? All her clients did butt exercises.
If Justin liked to push the sled, then all his clients pushed the sled.

 

???

I watched every single trainer train. I wondered about the training rationale. We weren’t taught any of that in class. My first real lesson in theory versus application. Why did we learn all those exercises anyways? My body changed some, but I still didn’t see the results I wanted. The cover of Men’s Health still eluded me.

So many exercises, which ones do I pick?

Every trainer had a different answer, and their exercises were always the best. This was frustrating not to mention wrong.

I spent 7 years at 24 Hour Fitness, working my way from rookie personal trainer to Fitness Manager all the way up to General Manager. I worked at 6 different gyms with hundreds of personal trainers. A key part of my job was developing rookie trainers. In October 2007, I remember a rookie trainer named Kaycee asked me that same haunting question,

“What’s the best full body workout?”

After years of fitness, I still didn’t know the answer. I had an epiphany. Let’s not guess anymore, let’s measure.
In those times, we used the BodyBugg (the world’s most accurate calorie tracker) Later bought by Jawbone and discontinued ☹

Calorie Burning Tests

We began the fitness tests. We tested the number of calories burned during each exercise. The trainers checked compound movements, isolated movements, and circuits. The experiment tested male, females, big and small clients. I couldn’t wait to see the results.

The data completed changed my approach to training.

I didn’t know it at the time, but it was here in 2005, I discovered my future company’s Total Body Project’s Big Three.

Most clients want to lose weight. Logically, the best total body workout would be the workout burning the max number of calories in the shortest amount of time.
The data was clear, the rationale simple, target the bigger muscles.

Two years later another rookie trainer asked me, that same question.

“What’s the most effective workout for fat loss?”

After 10 years of experience, 5 certifications, 2 degrees and success with hundreds of clients. I finally knew the correct answer.

Which Full Body Exercises to Perform

The most effective fat loss workout is a full body circuit, a total body project. This type of workout ensures our heart rate operates at the target heart rate (higher heart rate means more calories burned.) By focusing on the biggest muscles, we guarantee you burn the max number of calories in the shortest time. A circuit focused on the chest, back, and legs burns the greatest number of calories.

I don’t know why we complicate fitness? I really don’t. Here’s your definitive full body workout guide. These are the exercises you should do, the muscles you should target, and the muscles to avoid. Most people fail in fitness because they aren’t consistent. They fail because the lose the motivation. Keep fitness simple, focus on major movements, and remember most aesthetic changes will come from your diet.

The Definitive Full Body Workout Guide: TBP’s Big Three

Get Your Free Workout Guide

#1 Full Body Primary Muscle: ChestFull Body Mover Number 1: the chest muscle

Pectorals: A large muscle that inserts on the front of your shoulder and into your clavicle. It burns a considerable number of calories. Our total body circuit always includes a pushing exercise using the chest.

Things to Know About the Chest Muscle

Females typically have a harder time activating this muscle. Push-ups are for boys, is the classic saying. But all females need to develop working chest muscles. Females can perform push-ups even better than the boys.

If you’re new to resistance training, it’s typical to feel the exercise in your shoulders and in the neck area. Corrective stretching will help you establish the correct movement patterns.

Exercises: Presses, Flys, Mountain Climbers, Assisted Push Ups, Push Ups, Presses (Chest Machine, Barbell, Dumbbells)

How To Perform

Chest Press: Make sure wrists are straight, maintain proper alignment throughout the exercise. Relax your neck and shoulders. Tighten the abs. Visualize the chest muscle lengthening and contracting.

Common Mistakes: Arching the low back, bringing the head forward.

Chest Flys: Tighten the abs, relax the neck, lock the elbows and bring the arms together in an arch. Beginners should start with flys, until they can properly feel the muscle engage (tighten/squeeze).

Common Mistakes: Arching the low back, bringing the head forward, not locking out the elbows.

Mountain Climbers: Bring the knees up, slightly touch the toes higher and return, maintain consistent tempo. This is good beginner core exercise to help develop chest strength.

Common Mistakes: Shoulders should not go past 90 degrees, look for a right angle. If this exercise is too difficult or performed improperly, low back pain can occur.

 

Full Body Mover Number 2: the back muscle#2 Full Body Primary Muscle: Back

Lattisimus Dorsi: A big muscle originating at the bottom of our spine and inserting on the front part of our arms. The back is a huge mover that approximately 70% of females and 50% of males don’t properly engage. The back muscle is a pulling muscle. This means we engage the muscle by pulling anything towards you.

Things to Know About the Back Muscle

The back is a strange muscle to use. We instinctively know how to use our arms, but our back? When we start with a row or a pull-down we rely only on our arms. It’s only through proper mechanics the back muscle can be engaged. A proper pull will have little feeling on your arms while most of the tension will be on the back muscle.

Exercises: Lat Pull Down, Pull-over, Row

Lat Pull-Down: Think of pulling the bar apart. Try to bring the elbow toward your ribs. Visualize the movement and think of breaking the bar apart.

Pull-Over: Arms perfectly straight. Any slight bend in the arm causes the tension to go to the triceps (back of the arm). Pull with your arm pits. Under the muscle.

Row: My favorite back exercise, keeping the abs tight, pretend you’re squeezing a pencil with your shoulder blades. Pin the shoulders back. And squeeze the back muscle. The major benefit of the row exercise is it can be combined with another one of the big three movers for even more caloric expenditure. Rows are great for lunges, squats, and single leg exercises. Making this circuit one of the biggest calories burning combinations possible.

Common Mistakes: Sometimes I see females performing a bent over row with a light dumbbell. This may look like a good move. But the problem is the back muscle is too strong for the light dumbbell. The movement works but with more weight. The back muscle is quite strong and if you only use five pounds, it doesn’t really benefit you.

Full Body Mover Number 3: the leg muscles#3 Full Body Primary Muscle: Legs

Quadricepts/Biceps Femoris:  Huge muscles consisting of the quads, hamstrings, and glutes. The front of the leg, the back of the leg and the butt.

The final and biggest muscle of the Big Three. We need to work all of these muscles to get results. Yes, guys you also must work the legs and no…walking doesn’t count. The movements need to provide external resistance. Legs are crucial because they’re a versatile muscle requiring large amounts of blood and oxygen to perform exercises. You can combine leg movements with any muscle. You’ll burn more calories exercising your legs. Legs are a great way to add some of the nice-to-have muscles, arms (front of the arms, back of the arms.)

Things to Know About the Leg Muscles

Lunges and squats are incredibly versatile exercises. Be careful with knees, ankles and position. Be extra careful with plate loaded exercises. Exercises with a heavy bar across your neck increase the pressure on the joints. Any error in the movement and you can hurt your fragile back. You probably want to keep your back healthy for walking, living, and stuff.

Squats: The correct form on a squat is the most difficult movement to master: tail bone tucked in, abs tight, keep the back straight, chin tucked in, head aligned with the body, don’t bend past 90, and feet hip joint apart. 

Exercises: Ball Squat, Wall Sit

Lunges: Push through the ground, through the ground like you pushing the ground away from you. Foot flat and driving through the heel activating your butt.

Variations and Progressions: Lunge to 1–leg Balance, Box Lunges, Jump Lunges, Push Back Lunges

 

“But what about my abs?”

 

Always Include Abs

Abs are the sexy muscle everyone gravitates to. How can I get my abs of steel? Sadly, crunches won’t do it, trust me, I’ve tried. Abs are a smaller muscle group perfect to use with all movements. But, there’s no magic ab exercise to flatten your tummy, sorry. To achieve a perfect waistline, focus on removing the fat covering your abs. This can ONLY happen by lowering your bodyfat enough for the abs to be seen.

But which ab exercises are the best?

Fine, there’s basically two: crunches and planks.

Crunch: The floor crunch. Back perfectly flat, tuck your tail bone under you, and activate your abs. Hold your neck for support and keep the abs tight on the way up and down.

Plank: Best exercise for abs, but be careful when performing exercise. Make sure you are in the correct position, spine parallel to the ground, feet hip joint apart, Don’t let your low back drop. Squeeze your abs and your butt, elbows 90 degrees, chin tucked in, aligned with ear. You shouldn’t feel any pain in your low back.

The best way to work your abs is by combining core-training or functional training with your program. By using core-training, you will engage your abs, and work a bigger muscle, giving you more bang for your buck.

“What about the other muscles, like arms, back of my arms?” Jessica my client asked me.

The best way I know how to explain our solution is by grouping the exercises into nice-to-haves and have-to-haves.

 

Nice-to-Haves vs Have-to-Haves

The nice-to-have exercises consists of muscle groups not yielding as great results as the Big Three. The Big Three’s Have-To-Have Movements also use the secondary, nice-to-have muscles. The have-to-haves get you the results, the nice-to-haves make you feel good about your workout, but aren’t as beneficial. Most exercises have primary and secondary movers involved, so working the have-to-have muscles naturally include the nice-to-have muscles.

Example:

The chest (have-to-have) also uses the triceps(nice-to-have) and the shoulders (nice-to-have.)
The back(have-to-have) also uses biceps(nice-to-have.)
The legs use your quads (have-to-have)hamstrings (have-to-have) and glutes(nice-to-have.)
Focusing on the have-to-have muscles also works the nice-to-have muscles. But with the focus on the bigger, more productive muscles, you can achieve your goal faster.

Alright now for the good stuff. For maximum fat loss perform full body workouts.

 

Full Body Workouts – Combination Exercises

In resistance training, the bigger muscle groups burn 3-4 times the calories as the smaller groups. Don’t waste your time with triceps or calve workouts. Training smaller muscle groups is a giant waste of time. It’s hard enough to workout, working out with no results is a recipe for disaster. Motivation waivers, if you don’t see results, you’ll quit…again. Don’t quit again, focus on a full body, core-training circuit to see the most benefits.

Which Exercises Should I Pick?

There are thousands of exercises in the world, wait, let me clarify, there are thousands of VARIATIONS of the same exercises. This is crucial to understand; the actual movement of the muscle doesn’t change. Think about it, muscle connects to bone, connects to another bone and can only contract (squeeze) or relax. This means you’ll hear a lot of exercise noise. There’s little variation in this area, don’t get caught up in the latest trends (CrossFit, bootcamps, butt workouts.) The fundamentals for resistance training have always remained the same. If you look at the arm muscle, you can only squeeze it, or relax it, that’s it. Do you think it matters if you’re sitting, standing or lying down?

Exercises are like screwdrivers.

image comparing muscle movement to screwdrivers

A screwdriver only works a certain way. Even if you use it facing up, facing down, under a sink, in car, the screwdriver still works exactly the same way. The function of the tool doesn’t change because you change the position of the movement.

Don’t fall for the hype, muscles only move in a limited number of ways. Keeping the movement simple ensures a safe, proper, and effective workout. The most important element in resistance training is feeling the exercise in the proper spot.

Feel It Where You Need It

Without this feeling, you’re not getting any benefit from working out.

There will always be a new fad, a new butt workout, a new whatever. These “new” exercises are nothing new, they’re merely variations of the same exercise for the same muscle. Simplify before you complicate. Is it really the lack of knowing thousands of exercises that’s keeping you from achieving the body of your dreams?

 

Start with Machines

Machines are best to learn correct movements because they force you to move in one direction. It’s harder to mess up the exercise. Machines help a beginner develop the proper movement, it can also help seasoned users add more weight without adding potential injury.

Progress Slowly

Once you have mastered machines, start using cables, bosus, balls, TRX, etc. No on ever failed in fitness because their workout wasn’t complicated, no one. I’ve personally helped many achieve incredible success. We succeeded because of discipline and consistency. Keep it simple, basic, and consistent.

 

Exercises to Avoid

Sit-Ups

Please don’t do sit-ups, it’s an old-school exercise that’s bad for your back. Perform crunches instead. The have the same benefit but won’t destroy your lower back. Not all pain is good, and some id very bad.

Leg Raises

Be careful with leg raises. Most people I see trying to do this movement, shouldn’t. They arch their back, causing pain to their lower back.
Pro Tip: If your low back hurts during ANY ab exercise, you’re doing it wrong, or more likely, your body isn’t ready for that movement.

No pain, no gain?

Wrong. Pain sucks.

 

Muscle Pain Versus Pain

Pain isn’t needed in your exercise routine. A crucial difference exists between muscle pain and pain. Proper pain is muscular. It will be on the muscle. The muscle is anything you can squeeze (contract.) So, if your arm hurts, it should be the muscle part, where you can flex. And not the elbow, wrist, or anything that isn’t muscular. Tendons, ligaments don’t “squeeze” so they should NEVER hurt during a workout. Same goes for ankles, low back, and shoulder joints.

Problems with Low Back Pain

Anytime your core is placed in a compromising position: ie plank, or leg raises. The muscles holding you up are the abs and butt. But if you’re too tired, if the muscles aren’t strong enough, your core gives up and your low back jumps in. You’ll feel excruciating pain. There should never be any low back pain when working out…ever. Avoid all exercises causing low back pain immediately. Movements causing your low back to be sore are wrong. The low back (erector spinae) is a delicate muscle used to support your body, don’t hurt it, you’ll regret it.

How To Perform A Big Three Full Body Circuit Training Program

Get Your Free Workout Guide

Pick 3 Exercises: a pushing (chest) exercise, a pulling (back) exercise, and a leg exercise
Combine Into a Circuit: Do a set of each with no rest in between
And Ta-Dah! You’re done.

Why does the fitness industry make it so complicated?
It’s just what we do ☹

 

Total Body ProjectTotal Body Project Logo

In 2009, I left 24 Hour Fitness and started Total Body Project. Here the pressure was on. Going from a comfortable living to making zero dollars can force major changes. Although I knew the formula for exercising, I never really buckled down on the nutrition. Good enough, wasn’t good enough when you’re the face of the brand.
Even though I knew the exercises, it wasn’t until I mastered the mind, I finally achieved the body of my dreams. You know the exercises, a part of the answer, but only a part. Now, you need to learn the MAD Plan to master your mind. Don’t waste 19 years looking for answers, I’ve found them. Learn from my mistakes, and get that body you want and deserve.

Tony Arreola

NASM Master Trainer

Best Selling Author, Get Me Skinny

 

PS: Don’t forget your  FREE WORKOUT GUIDE

 

References:

  1.  Clark, M.A., Lucett, S. C., & Sutton, B. G. (2012). NASM Essentionals of Personal Fitness Training (4th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.
  2.  Robin Huw Crompton, David M. Warshaw, Norman R. Alper, Warren F. Walker, Robert E. Davies, John Gergely. Muscle Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/science/muscle on Sept 28, 2019
  3. Jennifer R. Scott. How to Start Resistance Training Retrieved from https://www.verywellfit.com/what-is-resistance-training-3496094 Aug 13, 2019
  4. Gabriel, D. D. (2006). Neural adaptations to resistive exercise: mechanisms and recommendations for training practices. Sports Medicine, 133-149.
  5. Shield, D. A. (2004). Assessing voluntary muscle activation with the twitch interpolation technique. Sports Medicine, 253-267.
  6. Brett and Kate McKay. The Ultimate Guide to Posture March 8, 2016 from https://www.artofmanliness.com/articles/the-ultimate-guide-to-posture/ Retrieved on Aug 12, 2019
  7. Merriam-Webster. “Definition of Momentum.” https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/momentum
  8. Merriam-Webster. “Definition of Pectoral.” https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pectorals
  9. Merriam-Webster. “Definition of Pectoral.” https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/latissimus%20dorsi
  10. Muscles https://www.healthline.com/human-body-maps/leg-muscles#1 Retrieved on Aug 13, 2019
how to measure fat

(Sigh..) Fat loss failures have plagued me for 17 years.  Clients, friends, neighbors have asked me some form of this question. What should I eat? What’s the fastest way to trim my waist? How do I get rid of this? To help anyone, I first needed to help myself. No one likes a fat trainer. And sadly, I was a fat trainer.Personal Trainer Tony Arreola experiencing personal fat loss failure The answer surprised me and it will surprise you. You only need to master two keys to succeed in fat loss. Just two. Avoid more fat loss failure with these two keys.

Fat loss failure happens for at least one of the following reasons:

  1. You don’t understand the difference between fat loss and weight loss
  2. You don’t know what calories are or how many you should eat
  3. You’re not moving enough and/or eating too many calories
  4. You don’t drink enough water
  5. You can’t execute your plan

Avoid Fat Loss Failure with Five Principles

Take a moment and ask yourself these five questions. I asked myself the same questions. Even after my first training certification in 2002, I couldn’t answer all five. Epic freaking fat loss fail.

Frustrated man slamming head on desk because of fat loss failure

1. You don’t understand the difference between fat loss and weight loss

Do you remember the last time you checked out at the grocery store? Did you glance at the magazine headlines? Some celebrity always loses 10 pounds in 3 days, or 15 pounds in 10 days with a “new” diet. Can this be true? Or are they lying?

It might actually be possible…

Say What?

Yes.

But weight loss and fat loss are not the same.

Weight loss can happen instantly, but true fat loss always takes time (sometimes a long time.) Fat loss is the process of your body converting fat matter into usable energy. Fat loss and weight loss are very different.

trainer tony arreola explains the dangers of fat loss failure

Have you ever tried to grab water?

Have you ever grabbed fat?

You CAN grab fat, but you CAN’T grab water.

 

 

If you can grab it, you can lose it.

 

 

Why Our Weight Changes Daily

  1. Water (Body is 65% water)
  2. Carb Intake (Carbs hold water: Carbo – HYDRATE)
  3. Sodium Intake (Salt retains water)
  4. Bowel Movements (Poop, if it’s in you, it’s IN you)
  5. Time of the Month (Females)

A daily weight change of 2-5 % of total weight is normal. In 2002, two years after my brother’s passing. I didn’t care about anything…including myself. I crept up to 192 pounds. For myself, a daily weight change of 4-9 pounds is normal.

I wish I would’ve known this back then. In college, fast food was the norm. My diet attempts included ordering a #1 with no mayonnaise, no cheese and a diet coke. The next day I would jump on the scale. Boom, down five pounds! But, the next day, I would walk off the scale up seven pounds (instant sad mode.)

2. You don’t know what calories are or how many calories to eat

“I didn’t realize it was so simple.”

This phrase I’ve heard from my clients dozens of times when they first learn about calories. I can teach you about carbs, fats, and proteins, but why? To lose fat, you don’t need to know a lot, you only need to understand calories.

Calories. I know, I hate the word, too.

But for us to have any chance of reaching your goal. You need to understand calories. Especially, how they relate to fat loss. Many diets, cleanses, and media promise you calories don’t count. I wish it was true, but sadly, it isn’t. If you ignore this basic fact, you will struggle with fat loss.

Calories always count, always.

An energy deficit results in fat loss, this is the only way fat loss can happen. Any successful diet claiming you’re not counting calories, still places you in an energy deficit. Meaning you’re still eating less calories than your body burns.

Calories always count, always.

Every successful diet makes you eat less calories than your body burns. So, even if you’re not counting calories, you’re still counting calories. Sorry.

Calories always count, always.

I know you don’t like calories. And you hate watching calories for the rest of your life. So, I’ll give you a moment.

Ready?

Like my mom always told me. “It doesn’t matter if you like it or not. Get it done.” Calories are a fact of life. Calorie management is a basic governing law. Calories, like money will always matter in your life. Your feelings won’t change the facts.

Calories always count, always.

But what are calories?

Calorie: a unit of energy, defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius.

What?

The non-nerd version:

Calories are the currency of energy. A calorie is just a form of energy, 1 pound of fat = 3,500 calories. To burn one pound, you have to burn 3,500 calories.

“How many calories should I eat?”

Too much equals too much fat loss failure

If you can’t answer this question, you will never lose the fat. In 2002, I had no idea what a calorie was, at all. Nobody told me, I was never taught in school, the internet didn’t exist. But lucky for you and my clients, we know how many calories you need to eat to lose fat.

A good gauge would be to add a zero to your body weight.  I weighed 192, I should eat 1900 or less calories. As your weight decreases the number of calories also decreases. Use My Fitness Pal to help monitor caloric intake.

3. You’re not moving enough and/or eating too many calories

The caloric intake is only one side of the solution, the most important side and the easiest to control. If you’re not losing weight, you aren’t moving enough for your body to burn the extra calories on your body. Use a FitBit or other fitness tracker to measure caloric output.

Here’s the good news:

Calories function exactly like money.

Managing calories is like managing money. If you want to lose fat, burn more calories than you eat. If you want to be rich, make more money than you spend. Using an activity tracker will help you keep you active, logging your nutrition will show you how many calories you’re eating. Manage your caloric budget like money, every savings of 3,500 will equal one real pound of fat.

4. You’re not drinking enough water.

Stop reading this and go pee. Check the color of the pee.

*More steps required for females*

Go ahead, I’ll wait.

So…

What color was it?

Yellow, light yellow, brownish, clear? If it wasn’t clear you’re not drinking enough water. 

Water consumption should be equal to half your body weight in ounces.

Ex: weigh 192 lbs = drink 96 ounces = approximately 12 glasses of water.

I know it sounds like a lot. Most people think they’re hungry, when in fact they’re actually thirsty. Imagine if all this time, when you thought you were hungry, you were just thirsty. Water might be the easiest way to avoid fat loss failure, ever.

Take a moment and re-read the four principles. Do you understand each one? I cover these principles first with all my clients. If they can’t understand these fundamental principles to avoid more fat loss failure, the party stops here. Once they fully understand the basics, then we can move into the more challenging part of the solution.

Oh, you thought it would be easy?

I wish it was, but once you know the information, you must be willing to accept the difficult part:

5. You can’t execute your plan.

Back in 2002, a potential client told me. “I don’t need a trainer. I know what to do.” This statement hurt my feelings. After all, this was my profession. And I was still a fat trainer (not a good look.)

He wasn’t in great shape, and I believed him. I believed everyone for years. I thought I knew what to do, but as a chubby trainer. Did I really know what to do?

No.

Knowing what to do and doing what you need to do are very different. I spent the next 2 years losing the weight while gaining invaluable insight.  I ran into the same landmines you do. Like having a plan, then failing during the weekend, falling to peer pressure in the break room, and overeating for no reason at parties.

After 17 years of experience, 2 degrees, and 7 certifications I can tell you the answer is simple. The reason we experience fat loss failure is we because we eat more than our body needs.

Move More and Eat Less

“That’s it!”

While it is a simple theory, it is difficult to apply.

Here are some tips to get you started on your fat loss journey.

image showing how decision can help you get rid of old habits

Start with Small Changes

If you start with drastic changes, you’ll struggle.  That’s why most diets don’t work.  Start with making less mistakes.  Like no mayonnaise, candy only once per day, fast food only on weekends.  Build off your wins as you work to create new habits.

Have a Strategy for Dinners/Weekends

If you know you’re going to overeat, (family dinners, bdays, parties, etc.) Plan for it. Eat less before the event, like a soup or salad.  Save your calories for the event. The plan will work exactly like a budget, save what you want to spend.

Make It Simple

Don’t waste energy complicating matters.  How much sugar? How many grams of carbs? Focus on less calories. Blah, blah, blah. Stay away from “Del Taco.” Don’t have seconds and thirds.  Junk food is called junk food for a reason.  Eating while intoxicated usually leads to a poor choices.

Download Your FREE Fat Loss Failure Prevention Guide

I’ve been there. I’ve walked the walked. Through trials and tribulations, I found the answers to your struggles. After years of working directly with fat loss clients,I learned the simple strategy to avoid fat loss failure. I call the solution the MAD Plan. I’ve used it successfully for years. You can have the plan for FREE!

 

  Click HERE for Your MAD PLAN

 

Download the plan, learn the simple way and permanently avoid fat loss failure. I’m no longer a fat trainer, and my clients don’t need to waste time or money with techniques that don’t work. After you download your free guide, let me know in the comments if you found the guide useful.

Tony Arreola

NASM Master Trainer

Best Selling Author, Get Me Skinny

 

PS: Download the Secrets of the Skinny NOW

References:

  1.  Clark, M.A., Lucett, S. C., & Sutton, B. G. (2012). NASM Essentionals of Personal Fitness Training (4th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.
  2. Merriam Webster. “Definition of Water” https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/water
  3. Merriam Webster. “Definition of Fat” https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/fat
  4. USGS “The Water in You: Water and the Human Body” https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/water-you-water-and-human-body?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects Retrieved on Sept 21, 2019
  5. Jessie Szalay. “What are Carbohydrates?” https://www.livescience.com/51976-carbohydrates.html Retrieved on Aug 14, 2019
  6. Cleveland Clinic “Feel Bloated? 5 Odd Reasons for Your Stomach Pain” https://health.clevelandclinic.org/feel-bloated-5-odd-reasons-stomach-pain/ Retrieved on July 1, 2019
  7. Abdominal fat and what to do about it. (2015).
    health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/abdominal-fat-and-what-to-do-about-it
  8. Cummings, JH., et al. (1992). Fecal weight, colon cancer risk, and dietary intake of nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber).
    gastrojournal.org/article/0016-5085(92)91435-7/pdf?referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2F
  9. Diarrhea. (2018).
    medlineplus.gov/diarrhea.html
  10. How often does the average person poop? (n.d.).
    umass.edu/mycenter/documents/bb/poop.pdf
  11. Mayo Clinic Staff. (2015). Chart of high-fiber foods.
    mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/high-fiber-foods/art-20050948
  12. Mayo Clinic Staff. (2017). Weight-loss basics.
    mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/weight-loss/basics/weightloss-basics/hlv-20049483
  13. Picco MF. (2018). How long does it take to digest food — from the time you eat to the time you excrete it?
    mayoclinic.org/digestive-system/expert-answers/faq-20058340
  14. Slavin JL. (2005). Dietary fiber and body weight. DOI:
    10.1016/j.nut.2004.08.018
  15. Cheuvront SN, et al. (2013). Physiologic basis for understanding quantitative dehydration assessment. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.112.044172
  16. Gorczyca AM, et al. (2016). Changes in macronutrient, micronutrient, and food group intakes throughout the menstrual cycle in healthy, premenopausal women. DOI: 10.1007/s00394-015-0931-0
  17. Guarino M, et al. (2011). Progesterone receptors and serotonin levels in colon epithelial cells from females with slow transit constipation. DOI:
    10.1111/j.1365-2982.2011.01705.x
  18. Inam QU, et al. (2016). Effects of sugar rich diet on brain serotonin, hyperphagia and anxiety in animal model of both genders. 
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27166525
  19. Jenkins TA, et al. (2016). Influence of tryptophan and serotonin on mood and cognition with a possible role of the gut-brain axis. DOI:
    10.3390/nu8010056
  20. Julian R, et al. (2017). The effects of menstrual cycle phase on physical performance in female soccer players. DOI:
    10.1371/journal.pone.0173951
  21. Kohndoker F, et al. (2017). Serum calcium and magnesium levels during different phases of the menstrual cycle.
    pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4c86/12a9144274336b0dd1d48795b2d56afcc01e.pdf
  22. Mayo Clinic Staff. (2018). Edema.
    mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/edema/symptoms-causes/syc-20366493
  23. Mayo Clinic Staff. (2018). Menstrual cramps.
    mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/menstrual-cramps/symptoms-causes/syc-20374938
  24. Mayo Clinic Staff. (2018). Premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
    mayoclinic.org/es-es/diseases-conditions/premenstrual-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20376780
  25. Mayo Clinic Staff. (2018). Water retention: Relieve this premenstrual symptom.
    mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/womens-health/in-depth/water-retention/art-20044983
  26. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). (2015).
    acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Premenstrual-Syndrome-PMS?IsMobileSet=false
  27. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). (2018).
    womenshealth.gov/menstrual-cycle/premenstrual-syndrome
  28. Racine SE, et al. (2011). Differential associations between ovarian hormones and disordered eating symptoms across the menstrual cycle in women. DOI:
    10.1002/eat.20941
  29. Sawai A, et al. (2018). MRI reveals menstrually-related muscle edema that negatively affects athletic agility in young women. DOI:
    10.1371/journal.pone.0191022
an image of 15 fat loss myths

When we fall for fat loss myths dire consequences occur. When we’re promised quick results, but instead fall flat on our face it’s devastating. We’re less likely to try again. Obesity is surging. There are currently 175 million overweight or obese teens and adults in the United States. We need proper guidance. I won’t promise what I can’t deliver. I promise you the truth. Changing your lifestyle won’t be easy, but it will be worth it. You deserve great health. Let’s start with a stand. Let’s make today the day we stop falling for these notorious fat loss myths.

trainer Tony Arreola beating fat loss myths with truths

15 Common Fat Loss Myths

1. “Sweating more makes you lose weight faster.”

2. “Running makes you lose weight instantly.”

3. “Eating bread makes you fat.”

4. “Fasted cardio makes you lose weight fast.”

5. “I have a slow metabolism.”

6. “You can spot train.”

7. “Lifting weights will make me bulky.”

8. “No pain, no gain.”

9. “Crunches target your stomach.”

10. “HITT training is the fastest way to burn fat.”

11. “Hormones are causing me to gain weight.”

12. “Women don’t need to lift weights.”

13. “Cardio speeds up fat loss.”

14. “Lifting weights turns you into a fat burning machine.”

15. “I’m getting older, my metabolism is slowing down.”

 

Download the Cheklist

 

1. “Sweating more makes you lose weight faster.”

We’ve all seen that guy wearing trash bags or a sweat suit. They look hot, silly, and in no better shape. Are they onto something? Let’s take a deeper look. The human body is approximately 60% water. If our human body weighs 180 pounds, 60% of the weight is water, which means 108 pounds of your weight is water weight. On the scale your weight can vary anywhere from 2-5% of your body weight daily. That means the weight can vary from  3-9 pounds for our 180 pound example. If we have 108 pounds of water, and we dehydrate ourselves by sweating as much as possible. We can drop up to 20 pounds of water in extreme cases. We can bring down our weight on a scale to 160 pounds in a very short time.

But, it’s only a water weight loss not fat loss. Great for making weight in a fight, but not for changing your appearance. Unless you’re training for a  big fight, you’re playing with fire. Sweating too much can compromise your health. You will lose water weight, but you run the risk of many severe health problems:

Sweat is mostly water, and sweat is used to cool the body down, so you won’t die. Not dying is good.

Dehydration from vigorous exercise, increased temperature or not enough water can cause:

  • Heat Exhaustion: These can range in severity from mild heat cramps to heat exhaustion to potentially life-threatening heatstroke.
  • Swelling of the Brain (Cerebral Edema): This can happen when you drink water after being dehydrated. The brain is desperate for water and pulls water, sometimes too fast causing swelling and sometimes cellular ruptures.
  • Seizures: Electrolytes in water carry electrical signals from cell to cell. If your electrolytes are compromised, the normal electrical messages can become distorted. This can lead to involuntary muscle contractions and sometimes a loss of consciousness.
  • Low Blood Volume Shock (Hypovolemic Shock): When low blood volume causes a corresponding drop in blood pressure and a drop in the amount of oxygen in your body. This can prove fatal.
  • Kidney Failure: This life-threatening problem occurs when your kidneys can no longer remove excess fluids and waste from your blood.
  • Coma and Death: When not treated promptly and correctly, severe dehydration can be fatal.

People’s bodies average two to four million sweat glands. How much sweat is released by each gland is determined by many factors, including gender, genetics, environmental conditions, age and your fitness level.

Fat Loss Myth versus Fat Loss Facttony the trainer explains fat loss failure

Fat is matter, it’s a substance you can grab, it’s a real thing. For fat loss your body needs to convert the extra fat mass into energy. The human body is sixty percent water, so cutting water out, or sweating it out, will only give you a temporary weight loss. You temporary lose the water in your body, but once you re hydrate your weight will come back. To lose one real pound of fat, you need an energy deficit of 3,500 calories. A realistic fat loss goal is one to two pounds per week.

Fitness Simplified: While wearing a sweat suit, not drinking water and sweating too much can be dangerous in extreme situations, it can be helpful in measuring your own effort.

How To Use: Keep everything equal, meaning proper clothing, proper hydration, and a cool temperature. In this situation, sweat can be a good indicator of effort. Sweat can show you if you are putting on a good effort, compared to yourself. The key to the game is caloric burn, and if it feels harder then it is harder, and harder always burns more calories.

2. “Running makes you lose weight instantly.”

“My friend started running and she lost a ton of weight,” my client Kelly said.

I’ve personally trained over 50 clients in endurance events. Whether you’re training for a marathon, half marathon or 5k, running didn’t make anyone lose weight.

Not one.

In fact, in my estimates people misjudge the amount of calories their body burns. Most people eat more calories “carbing-up” for a race than they do running one. Just because you’re running, doesn’t mean you get a free pass at the buffet line. Don’t let running be another creative excuse to overeat. Fat loss comes from eating less than your body consumes. And your body burns calories far less than it can consume.

Fitness Simplified: Running isn’t a fast track to fat loss, just another sad fat loss myth.

What to Do: Running is a great cardio, strengthens your legs, strengthens your heart, strengthens your mind. Run, but only count it as exercise and incorporate it with a healthy diet for best results.

3. “Eating bread makes you fat.”

“Oh, I don’t eat bread,” said everyone in the last seven years.

Poor bread, I love bread, but it got such a bad rap. But how can cutting bread make you lose weight?

Easy.

Breads are carbohydrates. (Carbo-HYDRATES) Emphasis on HYDRATE, like water.

Carbo-HYDRATES

Carbohydrates are your primary source of energy. Coincidentally, they hold a vast amount of water. Lose the carbs and guess what happens? You lose water weight, again a temporary weight reduction. But you need carbohydrates in your life. Carbs are an essential macro-nutrient, like protein and fat, they provide essential functions in your health. Unless your diabetic, or pre-diabetic then you don’t need to worry about carbohydrates.

Fitness Simplified: Don’t let carbs scare you.

How To Use: If you want to lose weight don’t limit the carbs, limit the calories.

 

4.“Fasted cardio makes you lose weight fast.”

We can probably blame Instagram for this one. We’ve heard our body is supposed to burn more fat when it’s in a fasted state. This is correct, the body burns more calories from fat stores. Which is great if you’re trying to burn less calories and only the ones from fat.

Do you know which ones those are?

When you grab your love handles, what kind of fat are you holding? Do you care or do you want it gone?

Yeah, me too.

Fasted cardio is a fast way to pass out. When you have energy in your system, you push harder and thus burn more calories during the workout. It’s hard to burn calories when you’re light headed and laying down.

Fitness Simplified: Use common sense for your workouts. If you can power through a workout with only coffee or a small banana then go for it. If you feel awful with no fuel in your system, don’t do that. There’s no one since fits all solution, do what works best for you.

How To Use: Don’t complicate calorie burn. When something feels harder, you’re working harder. When you work harder, you burn more calories. Burning more calories, gets you there faster.

 

5. “I have a slow metabolism.”

Metabolism: Converting food into life energy

Our metabolism converts calories from food into energy to live. During this complex process, calories are converted into the energy your body needs to function. Even at rest, your body needs energy for all its regular functions, such as breathing, circulating blood, adjusting hormone levels, and cellular maintenance. The calories your body uses to perform these basic functions is known as your basal metabolic rate, “metabolism.”

Fat Loss Factors

While age doesn’t affect metabolism directly, other factors exist between people that account for differences in our individual metabolic rate. (How many calories our bodies burn, with no physical activity.)

  • Your Body: Larger people burn more calories. It takes more energy to power a garbage truck than a shopping cart.
  • Your Sex: Men usually possess more muscle than women. Having slightly more muscle than fat means a slightly higher energy demand. Muscle requires energy, fat doesn’t.

Although we don’t have control over how many calories our bodies use, we can control the demand for calories. This can be increased with physical activity. But not the type your thinking. Not weights, not exercise, but movement. Yes, any and all movement.

Fitness Simplified: Think of your metabolism as a funnel. You can’t change the speed of the funnel. That remains pretty much the same. What you can do is pour more energy into the funnel.

How To Use: You can’t increase your metabolism rate, but  you can use it more. By moving more, your body uses the funnel more. By moving more, your body needs more energy, and when your body needs more energy, it uses the energy from the fat in your body.

Move more, lose fat faster.

6. “You can spot train.”

I’ve met  countless ladies who desperately want to get rid of their bat wings. I get it, I want to help you get rid of that too. Unfortunately, like our height (I wish I was a little bit taller) we aren’t in control of our genetic make-up. Your genes, (so in essence your parents) are the ones to blame for those thick thighs. Genetic factors influence whether people store fat around the trunk or in other parts of your body. Males store fat different from females. Individual fat storage also varies from person to person. And trust me, the place where you store fat, is not where you want it.

Sucks, but true.

But what can we do?

To minimize fat in the areas you hate, you need to minimize fat everywhere in the body. Yes, lower your overall bodyfat and everything will look better. I know the look you want, and to the look you want means the bodyfat needs to come down everywhere. The first place you gain fat is the last place you lose it.

Fitness Simplified: Don’t target specific areas, target the total body.

How To Use: Focus on exercise that burn more calories. Total body workouts burn more calories because bigger muscle groups burn more calories. Burning more calories reaches your goal faster.

 

7. “Lifting weights will make me bulky.”

Females fear lifting weights, because they fear getting bigger and looking manly. While there are similar percentage improvements in strength with resistance training, increases in muscle size are typically less in women than men. While it is true both women and men produce testosterone, which is an anabolic hormone that plays an important role in growth and the repair of tissue, men produce up to 10 times more testosterone than women. This is one of the primary reasons men produce a greater amount of muscle mass over a shorter period of time.

Women only look bigger if they lift weights, but don’t adjust their diet.

If you keep the bodyfat or increase the bodyfat, and add more muscle. You will get bigger, if you keep the muscle and lower the bodyfat you will get smaller, and look more toned.

Fitness Simplified: It’s more important for females to lift weights than men.

How To Use: You don’t have to kill yourself in the gym. You only need to stimulate the muscle and bones in your body. Adding external overload (resistance training) will help your bones and muscles grow stronger. Your bones like your muscles are living tissue. Perform a total body workout 2-3 times/week.

8. “No pain, no gain.”

This fat loss myth alone causes more people to avoid the gym. While there is some discomfort in resistance training, flexibility and cardio training. The discomfort can be minimal. Think of it, this way. You need to go slightly past the breaking point for your body to rebuild. Then we rest, recover, and come back stronger. We repeat this process and you slowly become stronger, more flexible and improve heart strength. Like the three little pigs story, you need to breakdown the house and then rebuild stronger. When you push too hard, it’s painful, dangerous and you will quit. Obviously, it hurts too much. Quitting gives you zero benefit.

Fitness Simplified: The workouts need to be slightly uncomfortable, unnecessary pain will only force you to quit.

How To Use: Don’t think of the exercise as a punishment. Think of it as a reward and push yourself enough to produce natural endorphins. Plan a day of rest in between workouts. Start with about an hour of resistance training and roughly 20-30 minutes of cardio. Start slow and build. It’s more important to be consistent than to go hard.

 

9. “Crunches target your stomach.”

This fat loss myth is closely correlated to spot training. The body essentially has three layers. Muscle, bodyfat and skin, when we measure bodyfat we pinch all three and get bodyfat percentage.

When you target the abs with crunches, you do make the muscle stronger. Which is great for strong abs, but the problem isn’t the muscle. The problem is the fat covering the muscle. I call that layer the marshmallow layer and this layer is the problem. But doing every crunch known to man will not do anything to change the appearance of your tummy. You need to remove the extra fat to have the abs look better.

Fitness Simplified: Crunches make your abs stronger but does nothing for the looks.

How To Use: Crunches, planks, and core work are great exercises. But these exercises do nothing for the appearance of the midsection. To trim the waistline, usually the best exercise is the one where you eat the right amount of calories.

 

10. “HITT training is the fastest way to burn fat.”

High Intensity Interval Training (HITT) is alternating between timed hard cardio, and then a timed rest interval. You then repeat the circuit, hard and rest, hard and rest. Trainers like to tell you that you burn more calories in this matter. But, here’s the problem with this method.

Example:

150 female doing HITT (5 minutes on, 1 minute rest) repeat X 5 = 30 minutes
If during the High Intensity phase you push you burn up to (8 cals/min)
During the Rest you rest (1 cal/min)
Total: (25 X 8) + (5 X 1) = 205 calories

Compare to a lower but manageable intensity for 30 minutes.
(30 X 6) = 180 calories

The Caloric Difference:

The difference is 205 – 180 = 25 calories (or 2 jelly beans)

This doesn’t even consider that towards the end of your interval training, it’s hard to match the same effort. You probably wont have the same energy as the first couple intervals, less effort means less calories.

Interval training does have a role increasing VO2 max, helping your cardio increase, but as far as fat loss goes, it’s just another fat loss myth.

Fitness Simplified: HITT isn’t a shortcut, it’s just another workout.

How To Use: HITT can be fun to mix up your workout. Incorporating a total body circuit with recovery will help you burn slightly more calories(slightly.) But the bulk of your caloric burn with come from constant activity. Steps, activity and eating the correct number of calories.

 

11. “Hormones are causing me to gain weight.”

Hormones are a touchy subject and probably used the most to prey on females. It’s a convenient excuse for weight gain. It’s a hands-off approach and others choose to sell you their product of choice to help these hormones. If you want to see for yourself google “Weight gain and hormones” and immediately it isn’t your fault. The problem is hormones don’t cause weight gain. Eating more calories than your body needs causes weight gain.

Hormones Don’t Cause Weight Gain

While hormones, sleep and stress can cause other issues. The main issue is eating too much, I know it hurts to tell you. But it’s true. I’ve personally helped many clients who had thyroid issues or other hormonal imbalances. And while these issues are real, when it comes to weight gain it just isn’t the case. Menopause is another area where muscle loss occurs lowering the metabolic rate, but again not enough for weight gain. Weight gain only happens when the hormone imbalance causes you too eat too many calories. If you can control the urges, fight the temptations and stick to your plan, you will succeed.

Fitness Simplified: Hormones alone can’t cause weight gain. Eating too many calories, and not moving enough causes weight gain.

How To Use: If you feel hormones are really slowing you down, then perform what I call I a “Deep Caloric Audit.” Figure out exactly how many calories you’re eating (especially weekends) and figure out your activity level. Follow these numbers religiously for 2 weeks and look for either the caloric surplus or the caloric deficit. Energy is energy, and when your body intakes more energy than it needs, it will store the extra energy as fat regardless of hormones.

 

12. “Women don’t need to lift weights.”

This fat loss myth can cause severe harm to females. Females produce estrogen. Estrogen weakens bones, lowering bone density. Resistance training keeps bones strong. Lifting weights is only a form of resistance training. You can also use machines, bands, balls and your body weight to get the same benefits. Any external resistance (weights included) will provide the stimulation needed for bone and muscle growth.

Fitness Simplified: It’s more valuable for females to do resistance training than men.

How To Use: Focus on workouts that you like, but focus on the total body. Ladies tend to avoid the weight room and focus on crunches and booty work. Although this is awesome and I thank you. It will provides minimal results because you’re missing the biggest muscles in your body. And bigger muscles burn more calories, getting you skinny faster.

 

13. “Cardio speeds up fat loss.”

“You need to run to lose weight, you need to push to lose weight faster. I’ve heard this one a lot. And the facts are true. While you burn more calories during a cardio session, you don’t burn nearly enough to offset a poor diet. Cardio is a form of movement, but only lasts a small duration (usually 30 minutes.)

Your day is 24 hours, 1,440 minutes. That means your 2% of your day, your burning more calories. But what about the other 1,410 minutes 98% of your day?

You will burn more calories during that period, but not as many as you would like. Cardio keeps your heart and lungs strong. Cardio focuses on the cardiorespiratory system, it will strengthen your heart, but it will not speed up fat loss.

Fitness Simplified: Cardio helps your heart and lungs. But it won’t speed up fat loss. Focus on total caloric expenditure (total movement matters more.)

How To Use: Don’t count on cardio for fat loss. Count on cardio for heart strength. Count your steps. Steps represent movement. More movement means faster fat loss. Track your resting heart rate, as your cardio increases your resting heart rate (RHR) will decrease.

 

14. “Lifting weights turns you into a fat burning machine.”

We’ve all heard this myth in the gym, especially by trainers (myself included.) I fell for the bait. I thought as long as I lift weights, I can eat whatever I want. Turns out, if I eat whatever I want I gain weight.

Shocker.

But what about this fat burning muscle machine I was promised?

At rest, muscle does burn more calories than fat. But not much more, not enough to give you free pass at the buffet. The data is clear. A pound of muscle burns six calories per day while a pound of fat burns only two. Yes, it’s three times more calories, but how much is that?

Example:

Let’s say you weigh 200 pounds and your bodyfat percentage is 20%, and your muscles burn 20% of the caloric burn.
You work hard to lose 20 pounds, and add 1 pound of muscle (muscle is very hard to add, but that’s a story for a different day.) You drop your bodyfat down to 15%
Your RMR (Resting Metabolic Rate: the calories your body uses to keep you alive.) Brain (20%), heart (15-20%), liver (15-20%), kidneys, lungs, fat, tissues(10-15%) and muscle(20-25%).

First example:

Weight 200, Fat = 40 pounds, Lean Body Mass(muscle, bones, etc.) = 160. RMR Would be roughly 2000 calories, with 20% burn with muscle. This will be 400 calories/day.

Second Example:

Weight 180 pounds, Fat = 27 pounds, LBM = 153 pounds.  You add one pound of muscle and increase your caloric burn to 21%.
RMR= 1800 calories, Muscle 378 calories from the increased muscle.

So you added one pound of muscle, lost 20 pounds of fat, and increased caloric expenditure by… (-22 calories?)

Correct, contrary to the popular belief. Adding muscle, getting fitter, makes you an efficient machine, not a calorie burning machine. When you’re lighter, fitter, and stronger, it takes LESS energy to move. It takes LESS energy to run. Become fitter makes movement easier, and easier movement burns LESS calories.

Weight Lifting Research:

  • In 1995, researchers at the University of Limburg in the Netherlands published a study in Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise on 21 male subjects and determined that weight-training “has no effect” on RMR
  • In 1994, researchers at the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University in Denmark compared 10 bodybuilders with 10 lean subjects. Published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, the report found that intense weight-lifting did not result in any measurable EPOC. 
  • In 1992, researchers from the University of Texas at Austin compared intense weightlifting with intense aerobic exercise on 47 males and reported in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition that “RMR did not significantly change after either training regimen.”

Fitness Simplified: Lifting weights is important but doesn’t mean you can eat anything you want.

How To Use: Lifting weights can change how your body looks, but only if you execute on your diet. 90% of how you look depends on what you eat.

 

15. “I’m getting older, my metabolism is slowing down.”

As we discussed earlier, metabolism is the process of converting food into energy. Your body wants to live, so it will always convert food into energy.

Age has no bearing on metabolisms.

Metabolism and Fat Loss Myths

The body will always convert calories into energy in the same way. But as we age, we lose some muscle mass and are far less active. A metabolism is defined as the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life. The metabolism doesn’t change. When you read articles about “speeding up” your metabolism, they’re referring to total calories burned. And we all know how to burn more calories, move more.

Age and Fat Loss Myths

As you get older, the amount of muscle tends to decrease and fat accounts for more of your weight, slowing down calorie burning.

Fitness Simplified: Your metabolism doesn’t ever slow down. Don’t slow down your activity, less activity as you age, means less calories burned.

How To Use: Always burn more calories, than you eat to be lean forever.

 

You possess the knowledge to beat the 15 most common fat loss myths. I wish there was an easier way, but with hard work and common sense you can accomplish all your fitness goals. The fitness game can be unnecessarily confusing. Focus on the fundamentals, be patient and you’ll be successful.

 

Free Fat Loss Myth Checklist

I put this valuable list together in a convenient PDF, you can have the checklist for free. This will help your arguments 😉

Download the Cheklist

What are some fat loss myths you’ve heard? Please share in the comments below. Maybe you can help someone avoid falling for fat loss myths.

Tony Arreola
Best Selling Author, Get Me Skinny
NASM Master Trainer (OPT, MT)
Weight Loss Specialist (WLS), Corrective Exercise Specialist (CES),
Sports Fitness Specialist (SFS), Behavior Change Specialist (BCS)

 

PS: Don’t forget to Grab Your Fat Loss Myth Checklist

 

References:

  1. Center for Disease and Control, “Childhood Obesity Facts” https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/childhood.html 

2. American College of Sports Medicine, Sawka, M. N., Burke, L. M., Eichner, E. R., Maughan, R. J., Montain, S. J., & Stachenfeld, N. S. (2007, February). American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement [Abstract]. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise39(2), 377–390. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17277604

3. Hansen, Julieann. “The Science of Sweat”. American College of Sports Medicine. Archived from the original on 2013-09-21. Retrieved September 19, 2019 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9303999

4. Sparks, Dana. “Dehydration can lead to serious complications”. Retrieved September 19, 2019 from  https://newsnetwork.mayoclinic.org/discussion/dehydration-can-lead-to-serious-complications/

5. William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR. “Medical Definition of Carbohydrates”. Retrieved September 19, 2019 from https://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=15381

6. Center for Disease and Control, “Diabetes.” Retrieved September 19,2019 from https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/index.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fdiabetes%2Fhome%2Findex.html

7. Merriam-Webster. “Definition of Metabolism.” https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/metabolism

8. Merriam-Webster. “Definition of Calorie.” https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/calorie

9. Cleveland Clinic Center for Consumer Health Information: “How Does Exercise Improve Depression?”

10. American Psychiatric Association, Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Major Depression, 2000, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV-TR, American Psychiatric Pub, 2000.

11. National Academy of Sports Medicine. “HIIT, HVIT, or VIIT: Do you know the difference?” Retrieved from https://blog.nasm.org/sports-performance/hiit-hvit-viit-know-differences/

12. UCLA Health. “What is Menopause?” Retrieved from http://obgyn.ucla.edu/menopause

13. US National Library of Medicine. “Hormones” Retrieved from https://medlineplus.gov/hormones.html

14. Melinda Ratini, DO, MS. Web MD Thyroid Symptons Retrieved from https://www.webmd.com/women/ss/slideshow-thyroid-symptoms-and-solutions

15. Clark, M.A., Lucett, S. C., & Sutton, B. G. (2012). NASM Essentionals of Personal Fitness Training (4th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.